Distillation is for concentrating and purifying the alcohol. Only a handful distilleries in Scotland use a triple distillation, all others distill for two times. Single Malt Whisky is distilled in copper stills which are called pot stills. The first still is to cnoncentrate the alcohol up from 8% to 22%. The temperatur will increase very slowly to avoid a heavy foaming of the wash. When the foam comes between the two little windows on the still the temperature will be lowered until the foam goes back and than increased again.

The speed of the first distillation turn depends on the size and style of the stills and the alcohol content of the mash and the efficiency of the condensers. Distillation is done as long as there is more than 1% alcohol in the mash. The rest will be thickened and sold as cattle feed.


The raw spirit has now about 22% alcohol and is mixed together with the foreshots and feints. This is necessary because only over 28% there is a clean refraction. A part of the foreshots and feints is circulating steadily and will never become a drinkable spirit. The second run in the spirit still cleans the alcohol which contents until now also esters, aldehydes and higher alcohols which are also essential for the aromas and taste. At at about 90 degrees come the foreshots which content alcohol of 75-80%. The purity is tested with water. As long as the mixture is not clear there a pollutions.


The foreshots last up to 30 minutes (sometimes even more) and the alcohol sinks down to 72-75%. The middle cut is also called the heart which is rich with esters smelling fruity after resins and pear and it goes in an own container.

When the middle cut becomes lighter and smells after sulphur, gum and burnt or after fish then starts the feints. The feints were collected in the same container as the foreshots.


Water cooling was discovered in the 15th century and in the 16th century became the cooling pipe a cooling worm. Grain whisky´s are produced in a continous or column still. The wort flows from the top to the bottom and the alcohol vaporises.